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History of Islamic Origins of Western Education

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Manufacturer: English
Notes: 0-936347-32-5
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The pre-Christian and early Christian Middle Eastern cultures and nations are important to us. They gave us the religious, linguistic, and perhaps aesthetic beginnings of our Western cultures. They also preserved for us through the Alexandrian, Syrian, and Persian institutions of learning the substance of the Greco-Hellenistic traditions of science, mathematics, philosophy, and technology, as well as the educational ideals and methods which created them.

During the Medieval centuries, roughly between the seventh and twelfth, when the intellectual activities of Europe shifted from secular to sectarian pursuits, and from science and philosophical to theology and dogma, “…Muslim educational institutions were preserving, modifying, and improving upon the classical cultures in their progressive colleges and research centers under enlightened rulers. Then, as the results of their cumulative and creative genius reached the Latin West through translations of Arabic versions of classical works, as well as of Muslim writings in medicine, philosophy, geography, history, technology, pedagogy, and other disciplines, they brought about that Western revival of learning which is our modern heritage.” In his History of Islamic Origins of Western Education, Mehdi Nakosteen has drawn from German, Persian, Arabic, English, and French sources as well as his own understanding of the Eastern and Western cultures gained from living and studying in both. As a result, the reader can form an over-all picture of the contributions of Islamic scholarship to the Western world, particularly through the development of European universities during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Professor Nakosteen's major research examines the following basic questions:

Through what channels and to what extent did classical scholarship—Greco-Hellenistic, Syriac-Alexandrian, Zoroastrian, and Indian—reach the Muslims?
What cumulative and creative additions, modifications, or adaptations of this classical learning took place in the hands of Muslim scholars and schoolmen from the eighth through the eleventh centuries?
Through what channels and to what extent did the results of classical scholarship so preserved, enriched, and enlarged by the Muslims reach the Western world, mainly during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries?
Finally, what were some of the basic contributions of the transmission of Muslim learning to the expansion and reconstruction of the West European curriculum, particularly on levels of higher and professional education?

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The Purpose of the Study
The Transliteration System Used in This Study
Acknowledgments

I. THE CULTURAL, POLITICAL, AND RELIGIOUS SETTING
Geographic and Political Factors
Cultural Diversity in Islam

II. CLASSICAL FOUNDATIONS OF MUSLIM EDUCATION
Factors in Transmission of Classical Culture
The Syrian-Nestorian Background
The Alexandrian Background
The Academy of Jundi-Shapur
Jundi-Shapur's Contributions to Western Education
Translations of Classical Works Into Arabic
Translations of Persian Works
Extant Translations in Private and Public Libraries
Al-Fihrist of ibn al-Nadim
The Contents of Al-Fihrist
Al-Fihrist's List of Persian Books
The Bakh-Tishu Family (Chart)
Greek Learning (Chart)
Point of Fusion of Arabic and Persian, and Its Development with Modern Persian (Chart)

III. THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF MUSLIM EDUCATION, A.D. 750-1350
Madrasah’s and Nizamiyyas
Nizam-al-Mulk and Muslim Education
Aims of Muslim Education
Shi’ite and Sunnite Madhhabi (denominational)
Colleges in Eastern Islam (In vogue around A.D. 1050 to 1250 (Chart)
The Halqha (Circle School)
The Organization of Muslim Schools
Organization of Muslim Education,
A.D. 750-1350 (Chart)
The Maktab, or Kuttab (Writing School)
The Palace School
The Mosque School (Masjid)
The Bookshop Schools
The Literary Salon
The Madrasah (School of Public Instruction; literally, Place for Giving Lesson)
The University
The Curriculum of Muslim Schools
Medical Education in Early Islam
The Teacher in Muslim Education
Types of Teachers
The Teacher's Garment
Teacher's Guild
Guidance
Academic Freedom
Method in Muslim Education
Autobiography of a Student of Theology (Quotation)
Some Muslim Contributions to Education

IV. THE LIBRARY AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTER IN ISLAM
Important Islamic Libraries
Libraries in the East: Baghdad to Nishapur .
Libraries in Persia
Libraries in North Africa
Libraries in Spain and Sicily
Jewish Libraries in the Islamic Context
Destruction of Muslim Libraries

V. MUSLIM EDUCATIONAL CLASSICS, A.D. 750-1350
Ghabus-Namah of Washmgir
Siyasat-Namah of Nizam-al-Mulk
Gulistan and Bustan of Sa'di
On Love
On Silence
On Old Age
On Piety
On Contentment
On Rulers
On Teaching and Learning
On Wealth and Poverty
Fatihat-al-Ulum of al-Ghazzali
My Child (Quotation)
Other Significant Educational Classics
The Ethics of Naseri
The Taharat-al-A'araq of ibn Maskuya
The Mantiqal-Tayr of Attar
Rasa'jl of the Ikhwan al-Safa
Mafa’tihu’l-Ulum of al-Katib
A Catalogue of Selected Other Muslim Educational Classics, Briefly Annotated

VI. SA'DI'S REFLECTIONS ON EDUCATION AND THE ART OF LIVING
Selected Maxims, Aphorisms, Anecdotes, Short Stories, and Excerpts from the Kulliyyat of Sa'di
Sa'di on Limitations of Education
Sa'di on the Wisdom of Living
Sa'di on Love and Youth (Mostly From His Ghazaliyyat or Odes)
Sa'di on Benefits of Silence
Sa'di on Old Age and Senility
Sa'di on the Requirement of Piety
Sa'di on Excellence of Contentment
Sa'di on Qualifications of Rulers
Sa'di's Quarrel With a Religious Pretender (Dialogue on Wealth and Poverty)
The Benedictions and Prayers of Sa’di

VII. THE CREATIVE-ADAPTIVE PERIOD OF MUSLIM EDUCATION
Preliminary Observations
Muslim Creative Works and Scholarship, A.D. 800-1000
Islamic Renaissance (Chart)
Philosophy and Theology
Mathematics and Astronomy
Persian Literary Men and Works
History
Chronological Table of Muslim Political and Cultural Eras

VIII. CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP IN MUSLIM EDUCATION, CONTINUED TO A.D. 1300
Recapitulation and Introduction
Mathematics and Astronomy
Medicine
Geography
History
Muslim Scholarship in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries
Philosophy, Religion, and Theology
Science and Technology
Geometry
Trigonometry
Music
Physics
Geography
Antidotes
Botany
Medicine
A Summation
Greek Education and Learning-Lines of Influence (Chart)
Islamic Learning and the West-Lines of Influence (Chart)
Influences of Muslim Philosophy on European Philosophy (Chart)

IX. THE TRANSMISSION OF MUSLIM LEARNING AND EUROPE'S INTELLECTUAL AWAKENING
Persian Literary Works
Works on Mathematics
Works on Medicine
Works on Music
Other Works
Latin Translations of Muslim Works and the Rise of Western Universities
Translations of Muslim Works and Expansion of Europe's Curriculum
Algebra
Geometry
Trigonometry and Astronomy
Music
Chemistry
Literature
A Final Comment
Islamic Philosophy and Science and Their Influences on Medieval Scholasticism and Modern Culture (Chart)

APPENDIX I, AN ADAPTED MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN CALENDAR AND IMPORTANT ISLAMIC CULTURAL EVENTS AND POLITICAL DYNASTIES

APPENDIX II, PARTIAL LIST OF EARLY TRANSLATORS OF GRECO-HELLENISTIC WORKS INTO SYRIAN, ARABIC, ETC.
The Schools of Nisibis, Edessa, Harran, Jundi-Shapur, Nestorian-Zoroastrian-Hindu (Between the Two Schisms and the Muslim Invasion)
The Alexandrian School, Monophysites (Jacobites) (Between the Two Schisms and the Muslim Invasion) (Philosophy, Theology, Medicine, Chemistry, Astronomy)
Early Important Translators Into Arabic

APPENDIX III, THE AL-FIHRIST OF AL-NADIM
List of Authors in the Al-Fihrist of al-Nadim
Works Listed Under Different Fields
Works on Education

APPENDIX IV,
PARTIAL LIST OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS AND WORKS, A.D. 700-1350
Astronomy and Mathematics
Chemistry
Education (See Chapter V, Page 75)
Geography
History
Medicine
Music
Natural History
Philology
Philosophy
Physics and Technology
Sociology and Law
Religion and Mysticism (Sufism), Including a Few Miscellaneous Works
Miscellaneous

APPENDIX V, TRANSLATORS
Partial List of Translators of Scientific, Philosophical, and Literary Works from Arabic into Latin including some titles of works and dates of translation
List of Translators of Scientific, Philosophical, and Other Works From Arabic or Greek Into Hebrew Including Titles of Works and Dates of Translations
List of Translators of Scientific, Philosophical, Literary, and Other Works From Arabic Into Spanish, and Some Dates of Translation
List of Translators of Scientific, Philosophical, and Other Works From Arabic Into Catalan and Translations From Persian Into Greek Including Titles of Works and Dates of Translations
Translations From Arabic Into Catalan
Translations From Persian Into Greek

NOTES
Introductory Note
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII
Chapter IX
Appendix V

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MUSLIM CULTURE BY TOPIC
List of Contents
Glossary of Abbreviations
Periodicals Dealing With Various Aspects of Muslim Culture
General Works on Islamic Culture
Collective and Commemorative Works on Islamic Culture Education in Medieval Islam
History
Literature
Medicine
Music and Musical Instruments
Philosophy
Religion and Sufism
Science and Mathematics
Astronomy
Biology
Chemistry
General Science
Mathematics
Science, Philosophy
Physics, Meteorology, Optics, Technology

SELECTED GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

AUTHOR

MEHDI NAKOSTEEN has drawn on his intimate knowledge and understanding of both Eastern and Western cultures, as well as extensive research, in writing his History of Islamic Origins of Western Education. He has written numerous books and articles about education and has been a contributor to major works including: Approaches to an Understanding of World Affairs, The Challenge of Science Education, and the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Born in Teheran, Iran, Professor Nakosteen came to the United States in 1925. He received his B.A. from the College of Wooster, M.A. from Columbia University, and Ph.D. from Cornell University. He also spent a year in special graduate study at Harvard University.
He was professor of history and philosophy of education at the University of Colorado.

 
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